How Do Subcultural Theories Explain Crime?

How can subcultures lead to crime?

Crimes like vandalism or fighting can be explained by the subcultures inverting the values of mainstream society, turning socially deviant acts into ones that are praiseworthy and a way of achieving status within the group..

What is anomie theory?

Originating in the tradition of classical sociology (Durkheim, Merton), anomie theory posits how broad social conditions influence deviant behavior and crime. … On the one hand, the theory has shaped studies of crime rates across large social units, such as countries and metropolitan areas.

What are examples of subcultures?

Subcultures are part of society while keeping their specific characteristics intact. Examples of subcultures include hippies, goths, bikers and skinheads. The concept of subcultures was developed in sociology and cultural studies.

What did Durkheim mean by anomie?

normlessnessAnomie is a social condition in which there is a disintegration or disappearance of the norms and values that were previously common to the society. The concept, thought of as “normlessness,” was developed by the founding sociologist, Émile Durkheim.

What are the subcultural theories of crime?

In criminology, subcultural theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed through the symbolic interactionism school into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence.

Is an example of a subculture theory?

A biker gang is an example of a subculture. Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1966) proposed that deviance results from the various opportunity structures that frame a person’s life.

What are the three types of subcultures?

Cloward and Ohlin developed Cohen’s theory. They said that there are three different types of subcultures that young people might enter into; criminal subcultures, conflict subcultures and retreatist subcultures.

What is Cohen’s theory?

Cohen’s subcultural theory assumes that crime is a consequence of the union of young people into so-called subcultures in which deviant values and moral concepts dominate. Subcultural theory became the dominant theory of its time.

Are subcultural theories functionalism?

There are a wide range of subcultural theories – most, but not all, from functionalist sociologists – that seek to explain why groups of young people commit crimes together. It is based on the idea that a group might have their own norms and values, distinct from the value consensus of mainstream society.

What is the status frustration theory?

Status frustration theory argues that four factors—social class, school performance, status frustration, and reaction formation—contribute to the development of delinquency. However, this theory was heavily criticized for not being testable. … The operationalization of social class has been problematic as well.

Are Millennials a subculture?

By this definition, Millennials are a subculture. While they share many of the myths, customs and rituals of the larger culture, they have language, preferences and customs that are distinct to their generation. They have a unique set of reference groups and opinion leaders.

Is TikTok a subculture?

TikTok is often viewed as a generator of viral dances and challenges, but there are countless subcultures and niche aesthetics that populate it, with art specific to those communities. … For some creators, moving entire fanbases isn’t as easy, and TikTok provides a source of income.

How does social control theory explain crime?

Social control theory assumes that people can see the advantages of crime and are capable of inventing and executing all sorts of criminal acts on the spot—without special motivation or prior training. It assumes that the impulse to commit crime is resisted because of the costs associated with such behavior.

Where do subcultures come from?

Subcultural theory was first developed by sociology scholars at the Chicago School in the 1920s. The Chicago School explored the existence of deviant behavior and discussed deviance as a product of social problems within society.

What is subcultural theory in sociology?

Subcultural Theory: The Basics Subcultural theorists argue that deviance is the result of whole groups breaking off from society who have deviant values (subcultures) and deviance is a result of these individuals conforming to the values and norms of the subculture to which they belong.

Is matza a functionalist?

Matza presents an interesting functionalist alternative to subcultural theories where he suggests that, in fact, we all share the “delinquent” values that lead some people to criminal and deviant behaviour but that most of us, most of the time, are able to keep them suppressed.

Who is Cloward and Ohlin?

Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin were criminologists writing in the 1960s about why young people commit crimes or turn to a life of delinquency rather than pursuing more legitimate paths. For Cloward and Ohlin, this is all about opportunity.

What is the neutralization theory?

Neutralization theory was developed as means for explaining how criminal offenders engage in rule-breaking activity while negating their culpability, or blame. … This contrasts other theories regarding criminal behavior.